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Garden & Horticultural SocietyBeautifying Richmond Hill since 1914

Gardening Tips

Gardening Tips began in September 2020 as a weekly collaboration with Email recommendations for future gardening tips to 

Society members may click Add Comment following any article, and post comments such as adding more retrospective, agreeing with the contributor, or even suggesting a correction. 

  • February 04, 2022 9:00 AM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    I saved seeds from flowers last fall and I saved seeds that I bought over the last few years if I didn’t use them all. And now the colourful seed catalogues are arriving in the mail enticing me to buy more seeds.

    Before I head to the store or order online, I need to get out my box of seed packets that I’ve harvested or bought in previous years.  First, do I have all the seeds I want? Last year, I didn’t look in my box of seeds and ended up buying 2 sets of duplicate seeds!  Then my thoughts focus on which of them and how many I’ll grow this year.  Before I am done, I consider which of them will I start early and then plant as seedlings and which seeds will be planted directly into the ground in late May.

    Of course, the most important question remains unanswered
    Are the seeds I already have still viable? Will they sprout or are they too old or dried out?  Now is the time that it matters if the seeds I’ve been keeping are still usable.

    A general rule of thumb from my father who was raised on a farm was that most seeds last a couple of years if stored in a dry, cool place. Also, different plant seeds may last longer than others! For example, seeds from “tougher” vegetables like kale, swiss chard, cabbage, pumpkin, and radishes may last up to 4 years while delicate veggies like lettuce, onions, parsnips may only last 1 year. But how long have I been storing my seeds?  It would have been a good idea to date each of the packets.  Note to self to do that this year.

    I’ve decided it is best to test my seeds to see if they can still sprout. Several other members do this as well if they are concerned and don’t want a garden missing some of their favourite flowers or vegetables.  You can test your seeds now as a part of your garden planning!  

    Just take a few seeds – and borrowing an idea from some journals, make it ten seeds for easy calculations. I used to just add a handful but then figuring out the percent that sprouted was more difficult. Put your seeds into a damp paper towel.  Fold it up and place it in a plastic bag.  Put the bag in a warm spot and after a week or so, count how many of the seeds germinated. i.e. sprouted. If none sprouted, they are no good. If less than 30% (3 of those 10) sprouted, then you'll have to consider replacing that packet with a new one from the store.  If say 70% plus sprouted – you’ve got good seeds.  Anything from 30% to 60% success would suggest that you should overplant that flower or veggie when you set out to use those seeds just to be sure you get enough of the crop growing.

    This sounds easy but you need to test each seed type and if you have 2 groups of one type of seed from different years, then you’ll be testing 2 sets of those seeds – one test per year.  So be sure to have a marker with you to write the type of seed you are testing and which packet they came from.

    Bottom line – with this knowledge you’ll know what you have already that will grow this summer and what you need to buy online or at the store.  This for me is the first step in planning your garden and daydreaming of what your harvest will give you. 

    Submitted by Doreen Coyne, a member of the Richmond Hill Garden & Horticultural Society

  • January 28, 2022 9:00 AM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    Disclainer: The article is based on my own experience combined with details on what my friends do to feed birds in their gardens, and the results from multiple google searches for additional ways to feed our feathered friends.

    We love to see birds in our gardens.  Many of us are taken by the number of varieties that drop by each day. One friend saw an Oriole in her yard at her new house so rushed out and got all the correct foods for it and was rewarded with visits that season and every season since. Birds are also useful to us. They help with pest control as they eye, then eat insects such as aphids, caterpillars, and grubs. But in the winter, food can be scarce so if you feed the birds on a regular basis it will encourage them to keep coming back to your garden.

    How to attract birds to your winter gardens and yards?

    First - Offer Them Fresh Water

    Water is essential for both drinking and washing for birds. You can purchase a birdbath or use a dog bowl or anything else with the correct shape. You may need to put a brick or rock in the middle so the water bowl stays in place.  Every morning fill the bowl with fresh, warm water so that birds can bathe and preen their feathers (clean feathers provide better insulation from the cold). Keep the water topped up and clean out your birdbath once a week to avoid pests and summer mosquitoes.

    Second – Feed Them Natural Foods

    Many types of birds will appreciate the fruit from your trees such as apples, crab apples, and pears. Which is a also great way to use up blemished fruits. For the winter, you can dry them and chop them into pieces. In the summer and fall, you could simply hang them from a tree or chop them up and scatter them on the ground for ground-feeding birds.

    Next fall, don’t clean up your ornamental garden borders or smaller plants. Leave them until early spring so they can provide shelter for insects, which allows the birds to hunt for those insects during the winter. Grow plants that birds love. They enjoy the winter berries from many shrubs such as holly, winterberry, and yew.  Birds also enjoy the seed heads of Purple Coneflowers, Black-eyed Susan, and Sunflowers.  Turning over your soil in winter, or just before the frost sets in, can help to expose slug eggs and overwintering grubs to make it easier for birds to find them.

    Third – Make Them Birdseed Cakes or Suet

    Bird cakes are very easy to make. Mix dried ingredients such as crushed, unsalted peanuts, sunflower seeds, grains, mealworms and dried fruit (ex. Raisins) in a bowl. Mix in some melted animal fat or coconut oil (1 part fat to 2 parts seeds and the other food you’ve mixed in with them) then pour the mixture into a greased 8”x8” pan. Once set, you can cut this into 6 pieces so each can be easily put into a purchased wire bird feed holder.

    Indeed, birds enjoy lots of food including unsalted peanuts, peanut butter, raisins, dried mealworms, and stale or hard mild cheeses, just as much as they like purchased birdseed mixtures.  Pinecones also make good bird feeders. Tie a string to the base of the pinecone then coat it with your birdseed mixture after letting it all but set.  Then tie that to a tree limb.

    Or pour the bird food mixture into a flexible container to make a shaped birdseed cake. A small take-out coffee cup makes a nice shape for a birdseed cake. Be sure to put a string tied just inside the bottom of the cup, then through the cup’s bottom, tie it again, and then leave a foot or so of string to attach it to a tree branch or other hanger. After you fill it up and let it set, simply tear off the coffee cup and hang it.  Your used coffee cups are cheap to use and easily replaced if you happen to enjoy take-out from Tim Horton’s as much as I do.

    Fourth - Place the Food Where They Can Feel Safe

    Hang feeders in a spot where birds will have a good view of their surroundings and thus avoid predators while eating. Only put out small amounts of food at a time and replenish often to ensure a continuous supply.

    Suggested reading:

    1. Homemade Birdseed Cakes. Bev provides an easy-to-follow recipe for birdseed cakes that can be put into purchased wire suet holders.  Click here to read.
    2. Suet Vs Seed Feeders.  This is a good article discussing the pros and cons of suet versus all seed bird cakes on Wild About Birds.  Click here to read

    Article by Doreen Coyne, Photos by Marj Andre, members of the Richmond Hill Garaden & Horticultural Society.

  • January 21, 2022 9:00 AM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    Thinking about getting a garden started in your yard?  Maybe a vegetable patch, or just growing some annuals or perennials to add to your flower gardens.  Last year we had several Gardening Tips on these topics so while its cold and the winter’s snow is on the ground, why not take a read through those articles and consider what you might grow this winter for spring planting in your 2022 garden. Here’s some of the articles you may find interesting.

    Crop Rotation  is the practice of planting specific crops in a given area each year and then rotating those crops to another area the next and the next.  This can help improve your soil as different crops give off some nutrients and others absorb specific nutrients from the soil. So the goal of rotating crops it to optimize nutrients in the soil. It is a good practice to do crop rotation in the vegetable garden every year to avoid crop diseases and/or pests from previous years coming back the next year.  Many crops produce a by-product that can help other plants. Yet they can deplete a nutrient they need to grow the next year.  Read the full story.

    Growing Vegetables in Your Garden. This article starts with growing your vegetable seeds indoors in containers you already have. It discusses watering requirements and transplanting crowded seedlings.  Then it moves on with step-by-step instructions on planting your garden.  Read the full story 

    Growing plants from Seeds. This article focuses on adding Milkweed to your native garden to attract monarch butterflies. It also discusses growing annuals and getting them to self-seed.  Then it moves on to Marigolds. Their seeds are easy to harvest and store and then plant the next year for a new batch of flowers! I plant a lot of marigolds using seeds as I find they are not only pretty but have a scent that deters most garden pests.  And l can’t smell that scent so even better! The information in this article applies to other flowers as well. Read the full story.

    Hints and Tips when Growing Seedlings
    This article focuses on 3 things: 1) Containers for seedlings, 2) Growing flowers in jugs, and 3) Blossom End Rot Read the full story.

    Growing Potatoes In this article, the author gives the full story on how to grow potatoes to get a great harvest.  Read the full story.

    Create some joy for yourself and others!  Start planning your garden. So sit back, have a coffee or tea, and start to think about, and plan, your garden.

    Submitted by Doreen Coyne, a member of Richmond Hill Garden & Horticultural Society

  • January 14, 2022 9:00 AM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    Cooking for one or two people isn’t much fun so I tend to make food for the “family” and then freeze the remaining portions for future meals! Sometimes I plan a small dinner party and use those leftovers for freezing. You can make several small containers of soup, stew, or chili and then you’ll be eating something different each night of the week! That last idea is the focus of this article.
    Here are some ideas for cooking once and getting lots of meals from it.

    Cooking a Pot Meal:  When I make a pot of something, it is always a lot more than I can eat and I do not enjoy eating the same meal every night nor even every other night until it is gone.  Most of my pot meals can yield a meal for 10 people or more and it typically takes 2 to 3 hours to cook. But given a “pot meal” is generally more “liquidy” than say a pound of cooked hamburger or a chicken breast, I can’t vacuum seal it for freezing.  But I can put a serving or 2 into a clean but used margarine or yogurt container and freeze that.  Don’t quite fill the containers – leave a good half-inch of space at the top.  Then put them into the freezer. The next morning when the little containers are all frozen, I pop out the frozen contents and put them all into a big freezer bag that is dated and marked with its contents. Then clean the containers for the next usage.  Looking in my freezer, you’d see marked bags marked with “meals for one” of chili, beef stew, Osso Buco, and spaghetti with meatballs!  The result: A different meal every night without cooking every night! Yes, I have to thaw and cook my meal, but there is no measuring, lengthy cook times, nor adding of spices, etc.  Those parts are all done!

    SOUPS:  When I make soup, I tend to make 3 to 4 litres at a time. My favourite is beef barley. I keep enough in the fridge for 3 to 5 lunches then freeze the rest in taller yogurt containers that can each hold another 3 to 5 bowls of soup. I freeze them in the same way as I do for “Cooking a Pot Meal”. If each week you make a pot of another soup – choose between minestrone, carrot soup, lentil soup, broccoli soup, and/or perhaps chicken noodle soup, then you’ll be able to get a 2 or 3 different soups each week and enjoy a variety of soups for lunch each day that week!

    Note: This article is part of a series on Freezing Foods.  Below are links to other articles in this series.
    - Too Many Vegetables from your Garden? Read this article. 
    - More Veggies to Freeze.  Read the article
    - What else can you freeze? Baked Goods! Read the article

    Submitted by Doreen Coyne, a member of the Richmond Hill Garden & Horticultural Society

  • January 07, 2022 9:00 AM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    Every now and again, we are given a life lesson. We either learn from it or ignore it.  And many times, if we ignore the lesson, we are then given that same lesson again but in a different way.  Sort of a “groundhog day” thing i.e.) you repeat the lesson until you understand what you were meant to learn and implement it. This idea seems appropriate one to think about when we consider many choose many of the same goals each year as our New Year’s Resolutions.

    Below are two of my life lessons: the Poinsettia and Christmas.  Last year I wrote articles on these but I wanted to emphasize the importance of the lessons that I am asked to learn from these two things.

    The Poinsettia lesson is the one I keep repeating.  I love my flowers, but it seems that life throws me a curve and I can’t, or don’t, water them. Then they do not flourish. So, I try to water them more regularly or ask someone to water them if I’m not able. But inevitably the other waterer or I fail to give them the water they need or indeed, overwaters the plants.  It isn’t fair that the plants are tortured with no water or too much water just because I can’t get my act together. This recurring lesson varies with each repetition and has included my poinsettia, orchids, African violets, and Christmas cactus (which is really my mom’s and has been growing for almost 50 years.)  The plants provide such beauty and yet I let them go without water more often than I care to admit. It’s trying to teach me a lesson as it drops its flowers earlier than it should.  You’d think I’d get it by now. Perhaps the real lesson is not about watering flowers but about watering our relationships with family members and friends. Or even a wider lesson that we can’t judge people too harshly who mistreat others if we can’t find it within ourselves to take care of our plants, family or home. 

    The Christmas story referenced below is a lesson I learned well and so far, it hasn’t come back to haunt me. I feel I understand the message and am doing what I need to with that message.

    Read the stories and see if things going on in your life are providing life lessons for you.  And perhaps your New Year’s resolution could simply be to watch for these lessons and try to learn from them.

    • Keep your Poinsettia for Years!  Your Christmas or Holiday Poinsettia from December should still be blooming as long as you keep watering it.  And if you follow a few simple guidelines, it can be kept for many years to come.  The plant relies on three things – correct levels or amounts of light, temperature, and water.  Read the full story
    • What I learned this Christmas This "Tip" is not about growing flowers, seedlings, nor veggies. It is a personal growth story that I learned during the Christmas season and wanted to share.  Maybe there is a seed within it that you might harvest for yourself or a friend. One of the nuggets I discovered was this: We should simplify our lives and try to avoid those things that frustrate us. When we are happier, we can be more open and caring. And others will see and feel that and also be happier.  Read the full story
    Submitted by Doreen Coyne, a member of the Richmond Hill Garden & Horticultural Society
  • December 17, 2021 9:00 AM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    It’s that time of year that we get a new Richmond Hill Waste Management Guide in the mail.  When it arrives, I go through it and mark my pickup weeks for garbage pickup days, double garbage days, start and stop of lawn waste pickup, and of course, Christmas tree pickup dates.

    From the City of Richmond Hill's website and their handy guide, Christmas trees will be collected the weeks of January 3 and 10 in 2022 on your regular collection day of those weeks. There are some regulations on the tree before it can be picked up.

    - Maximum height per tree is 2metres (7 feet.)
    - Remove all decorations and nails.
    - Place the tree at the curb by 7 am. I’m not sure who they think wakes up that early just to put garbage out; but like us, they have hopes and dreams.

    Note that even if you do meet those criteria, it will not be picked up if your tree is left on top of a snowbank, stuffed in a bag, or frozen into the snow. Makes sense.

    If you had an artificial tree that you no longer want, it can be donated to a thrift store, taken to a waste depot (ex. Bloomington Yard Waste Depot) or left at your curb to be collected as a garbage item.

    Last year we published an article on not throwing out your live tree; but rather, using the live tree to benefit nature throughout the winter in your backyard.  It was titled “Put Your Christmas Tree to Work this January” and written by Debbie Coleman. It’s an interesting article. Please read the full story.

    Submitted by Doreen Coyne, a member of the Richmond Hill Garden & Horticultural Society

  • December 03, 2021 9:00 AM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    Did you make too much for the Holidays?  Or perhaps you just can’t eat the baked goods you bought before they start to spoil.  I freeze most of my excess produce but also find a need to freeze a lot of baked goods such as muffins, cookies, bagels, dessert loaves, bread, and more.  And of course, cooking for one isn’t much fun so I make food for the family and then freeze the remaining 3 portions for future meals!

    This article focuses on baked goods which we all like to have on hand for the Holidays!

    COOKIES:  When I bake cookies, I think “now that I’ve heated the oven, I might as well make 8 to 12 dozen cookies.”  They all freeze very well. And it is nice to have things at the ready when company pops over. It is also nice to have a variety of cookies on hand for your visitors to choose from. This is especially true around the holiday season. Once I start to bake cookies, I typically bake chocolate chip, double chocolate, ginger molasses, and oatmeal raisin. And if it is Christmas, then my Mom’s famous Christmas Cane cookies are also made!

    MUFFINS: I tend to buy muffins from the grocery store. But I just can’t make it through a carton of 6 large muffins before they mould. I love them for breakfast and typically buy 2 cartons if not making them from scratch. So, after I buy them, I move 3 of the first flavour into the second container and vice versa.  This gives me 6 muffins - of 2 different flavours in each container.  One container goes into the freezer. As well 3 from the second container go into a Ziploc bag and placed into the freezer. The other 3 are left to eat over the next 6 to 8 days. Now I have muffins for the next month. When I do make them, I use mini-muffin pans so I get tons of “two-bite” muffins.  I keep 8 to 10 of those out and the rest go in a Ziploc in the freezer.



    BREAD & LOAVES: The next week, I may prefer homemade bread! Once it is made by me, my younger son, or a dear friend, I can freeze it as is, if it is not a large loaf. But otherwise, I prefer to cut it into 2 or 3 pieces depending on its size. I place a couple of pieces of parchment paper between the pieces and freeze them together in a bag. A friend of mine slices the loaf and freezes 2 to 4 slices in each freezer bag.  Another friend does the same for loaves that she makes or receives from friends.

    BAGELS: I do enjoy bagels either buttered or with cream cheese. So, I buy a sleeve of 6 to 8 of them – no, I’ve never made bagels. I put 2 of them into a small Ziploc bag in the fridge. The rest are left in the package and frozen.  I find a sharp knife inserted between two frozen bagels breaks them apart easily. Then I take it out and put it directly in the toaster oven to brown.  A safer technique would be to place parchment paper between each bagel so they can be removed one at a time.

    If you don’t like to bake, you can have that homemade taste by shopping at Holiday bazaars which often include bake sales and “cookie walks”.  You can also do this by buying economical containers of dough from companies like MacMillan’s which taste very good and are baked at home.  Or for some items, simply buy baked goods from that section of your favourite bakery or grocery store. 

    Perhaps I should mention that I have a small machine (a FoodSaver) that draws the air out of freezer bags of food to be frozen. Not a necessity but allows you to keep things longer in the freezer without freezer burn.

    This article is a part of a series.  You may enjoy reading these additional articles on freezing food
    Too Many Vegetables from your Garden?  Read this article.
    More Veggies to Freeze.  Read the article.

    Article and photos by Doreen Coyne, a member of Richmond Hill Garden & Horticultural Society
  • November 26, 2021 9:00 AM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    At this time of year, many of us are looking to get rid of the last of the fallen leaves and to ensure our costly trees and shrubs survive the winter.  A series of articles written last year at this time will be very useful to you. Below are their titles, brief intro, and a link to the full story.  Enjoy.

    Wrapping trees & shrubs for Winter.  You may recall seeing trees and shrubs wrapped up in burlap as you drive through a residential area. over the years, I’ve seen fewer of these and began to wonder why people do it and others don’t.  Read the full story.

    To Rake or Not to Rake.  The leaves have fallen and this past weekend most of my neighbours were raking leaves and piling them into yard waste bags. This week’s garbage pickup will require a lot of heavy lifting by the waste management crew to get all those bags, that now so neatly line the curb, up and into their trucks. But they make great compost so why are you wasting time raking?  Read the full story.

    More About Lawns and LeavesI had some people ask me to provide some follow-up information to the article on raking lawns.  This article addresses questions such: Can we to run the lawn mower over the leaves? Can I leave my leaves on my lawn?  Read the full story.

    Leaf Blowers – good or bad?  This article reports the benefits and issues with leaf blowers.  I hope to arm you with information that helps you make a better decision for yourself and your neighbours. Indeed, the issues with Leaf Blowers can also be true of gas-powered lawn mowers; so good to know in case that is on your Christmas list this year.  Read the full story.

    Submitted by Doreen Coyne, a member of Richmond Hill Garden & Horticultural Society

  • November 19, 2021 9:00 AM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    I like a bit of Holiday greenery in my home at Christmas but it can be expensive to buy a live wreath, boughs of evergreen for the fireplace, and a few centrepieces plus some poinsettias.  Last year I went out and got two nice pieces putting one in the main hall and one in the living room. We got 1 small poinsettia and placed it on the kitchen table.  They all looked very nice and festive. At the end of the season, I thought I’d save all of the “ornaments” that were in the centrepieces and try to make my own this year.  I also saved the containers they came in and the floral foam that you push the evergreen twigs and flowers into.

    What to make your own?  Whatever yours looks like, it will be great!  Here is a list of what you need and how to make a simple centrepiece. 

    First, gather some supplies. Below is a list of what you need and where you might get them.

    1. Live material such as a piece of holly or ivy, small branches of evergreen, one or two small branches from a boxwood or Euonymus shrub. Live evergreen is required.  Perhaps you have an evergreen shrub or tree from which you can clip several small branches – each about 4 to 8 inches long. Plus one that ends with a crown of little branches to act as the top of your arrangement or perhaps you can find a pinecone to use. If you don’t have these on your property, then you can always go to a big box store, a nursery, or a local tree lot to see if they have pieces you can buy.
    2. Decorations: A small group of fake red or white berries attached to a piece of wire, a small cardinal on a stick that you push into the floral foam, floral foam, a little birdhouse, a bell, etc. To find these, try the dollar stores, Walmart, Michaels, and even some nurseries.
    3. A container for this arrangement. Containers can be found at Michaels, Walmart, and dollar stores.
    Second, start assembling the centrepiece.
    1. Put the floral foam into a sink full of water and ensure the foam gets fully wet.
    2. Put the floral foam into the base of your container. You may have to trim it with a knife to make it fit.
    3. Then start adding the evergreen branches.  You want to start at the bottom and work your way up with longer branches at the base so they can be inserted into the foam at a low angle so they come out and bend down towards the tabletop. At the very top, I placed a pinecone but you could use the end of a small evergreen branch with a crown of baby branches.
    4. Now it is time to decorate.  I like to choose a “front” side of the piece and then I added my cardinal there just over halfway up.  Then, I added white berry twigs to add some colour to the whole piece.  I also put in some red berry twigs for contrast. With those in place, I found it easier to add some of the boxwood vine. 

    Things I’d do differently next time:
    - I cut some of the evergreen pieces too early and the piece is starting to brown.  Of course, I also forgot to water it – so bad on me.  Thus, cut later in November and be sure to keep the floral foam wet.
    - I'd put more red berry branches at the front of my piece.  Most of them ended up on the back with lots of white ones in the front.  The good news: it is easy to make that change anytime you want!

    But if after all is said and done, you prefer to buy finished pieces, I’ve gotten nice pieces from Kate’s Garden in Markham. But check out your local florists, and nurseries as well. Even Lowes, Costco, Canadian Tire, and Home Depot are selling these!  Sue’s Produce has some small ones for indoor use and other larger outdoor pieces.  Most important - take time to relax and enjoy the season.

    Submitted by Doreen Coyne, a member of the Richmond Hill Garden & Horticultural Society

  • November 05, 2021 9:00 AM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    Looking for a project that would be useful in your backyard?  While at a friends’ cottage recently, I found a very useful small table that I knew would benefit me and others.

    Jayne & Glen had great little tables that were on the back porch. The tables were made of scrap wood they had in the basement. But of course, you can buy a length of the needed wood or check with friends - lots of people have some “ends” leftover from projects and stored in the rafters of the garage. The little tables were used as footstools but also had holes drilled in the top surface to make them perfectly sized to hold a water bottle, soda can, or bottle of beer. For outside usage, the tables are left as raw wood. Indoors they have a few of these as well but they’ve been finished and varnished.

    So why is this a gardening tip?  Because sitting on the porch or around the pool keeps my drink in place without the wind blowing it over. And all that allows me to watch and enjoy my garden.

    The photos of the side table/footstool are below followed by directions for making the table.  If you aren’t a carpenter, don’t worry. These tables do not have to be beautiful… just functional. 


    Things needed to make the side table:

    • 1 piece of wood about 12 inches wide and 13” to 15” long. This will be the top.
    • 2 pieces of wood about 10 inches tall and 10” wide. These will be the legs.
    • 2 smaller pieces of wood to act as struts.
    • Screws to join the wood pieces.
    • A drill, one or more saw holes (used to make doorknob holes), and a jigsaw.
    • 2 pieces of wide elastic each about 7” or 9” long and a good inch or 2 in width. (These will allow your drinks to sit in the hole about 2 to 3” below the tabletop ensuring that they can’t be “blown” over.)
    • 4 thumb tacks or 8 small screws.
    • A hammer and a screwdriver.




    • Cut the main boards to the sizes as indicated above.
    • Sand the cut edges as smoothly as possible.
    • On the top piece, place your favourite drink bottom on the table and then use the appropriate-sized hole saw at that spot.  Add a second drink hole at the other “end” or “side” of the table.  Sand the two holes.
    • Turn the top board upside down and place a length of the wide elastic on each side of the hole tacking it down on each side. If using screws, screw in a small screw at each edge of the width of the elastic – i.e. 2 screws on each side of the elastic. Thus 4 per hole.
    • The 10 by 10 board can be shaped to have “legs”.  Simply make a curved outline by placing the bottom of a larger can on the bottom edge of the leg and trace it with a pencil. Then cut that shape out using a jigsaw. Sand the cut edges.
    • Screw the top piece to each “leg” – one leg at each end inset about 1 inch from the outer edge of the top piece.
    • Shape and attach the struts as shown in the diagram. 

    Submitted by Doreen Coyne, a member of the Richmond Hill Garden & Horticultural Society

Member of the Ontario Horticultural Association

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